THEN AS LATER, Bert seemed to act on the principle that any problem could be solved by a combination of hard work, frank conversation, and good connections. In January 1904 Bell cabled Bert from Gibraltar asking that he arrange a “national reception” for the remains of James Smithson, which Bell was bringing from Genoa for reburial. The 28-year-old Grosvenor asked President Theodore Roose­velt for an American warship to transport Smithson’s remains from New York to Wash­ington.

 

Roosevelt detailed the U.S.S. Dolphin for this mission. Grosvenor then persuaded the War Department to provide a military “Give us details of living interest beautifully illus­trated by photographs.”escort to accompany the casket of the benefac­tor of the Smithsonian Institution through the streets of Washington. Inevitably Bert Grosvenor’s youthful brash­ness and energy brought him into conflict with the anti-Bell faction—some of whom, Bert noted, had “long white beards.”

Managing Editor

“I do not intend to get out of their way, as they plainly hint they want me to,” he wrote to Bell on August 6, 1900. A week earlier he had written these words to his father: “Mr. Hyde is bent on remaining editor and knows that if I stay in, he will go out. . . . Outwardly I am very respectful and submissive, though it makes me boil. “It was a hot summer in Washington, with more than fifty days when the temperature went up to 90 degrees.

 

Grosvenor sought relief from the heat by going out onto the fire escape of the Corcoran Building, where the Society’s two-room headquarters was located, and listening to the jolly tunes of a hurdy-gurdy playing in 15th Street below. He found surcease from his battles with Hyde and the whitebeards by describing them in heartfelt letters to Elsie Bell, who was traveling in Europe with her parents. His tales of intrigue, treachery, and insult had their effect. On August 30, 1900, Grosve­nor received a letter from Elsie in which she promised to marry him. “I’ve got her at last and she won’t get away—and won’t try to, either,” a triumphant Bert wrote his mother.

Corcoran Building

“I doubt whether Elsie would have been as sure of her own mind,” Mrs. Bell wrote to Mrs. Grosvenor, “if all her love and sympathy had not been aroused by her indignation at the attacks upon him.”The turning point came when Bert was threatened with dismissal. Bell returned posthaste from Europe “to see what I can do for my boy.” At a meeting of the full Board of Managers on September 14, Grosvenor was given an $800 raise and the title of Managing Editor. Today, you can have that sum of money, even without promotion, by contacting payday loans online direct lenders.

 

OFF THE TIP of Newfoundland’s Cape St. Mary’s looms a vast half-dome of rock that has been a nesting ground of gannets since prehistoric times. The birds cluster and cling to every least ledge and cranny. They would be much less crowded if some of them would spread off the dome and onto the crags of the cliffs behind; the dome is separated from those cliffs by a crevice only a few yards wide. But that crevice means that the dome is of the sea. The cliffs are of the land, and the gannets will have nothing to do with the land.

 

Through all its history the island of New­foundland and its people have been just like that. It is separated from the rest of North America by no more than the 11-mile-wide Strait of Belle Isle, but that is enough to make Newfoundland “of the sea,” disdainful of the mainland and its landlubbers. In these parts, any lazy good-for-nothing is called an “ang­ishore” (hangashore)—a man too spineless to leave the land and dare the sea.

Newfoundland's Cape St. Mary

The “Newfies” even tend to turn their backs on the 43,359 square land miles of their own island, about the area of Tennessee. Comparatively few settlements dot the “bar­rens” of the interior. Of the total population of 540,000 (smaller than Nashville), 90 per­cent live along the 6,000 miles of landwash­the filigree shoreline of bays, coves, inlets, and islets—their houses and themselves looking forever out to sea.

 

Fisherman’s Day Begins Before the Sun’s

In the little outport of Salvage you can afford the rent of a house with loans. Most of the houses face the sea, but they were dark and silent when I trudged down to the landwash in the slowly yawning oyster light of an August dawn. I sat down on a warped and weathered dock while, one by one, doors opened in awakening houses. Out came the fishermen of Salvage, bulky in oilskins, heavy sweaters, and thigh-high boots, carrying lunch pails and teakettles, off to their day’s work.

 

Down to the dock where I waited came the Handcock brothers, Harold and Edwin, the latter’s grown son Frank, and their extra hand, Job Feltham. They said, “Good marnin’, bit chilly, isn’t it?” Then, all of us too sleepy to say more, in silence we boarded the Nettie & Joyce and cast off. The diesel chugged softly, and our boat joined the dim silhouettes of three or four others slowly ghosting out into the morning-misted cove.

 

The Nettie & Joyce—” ‘er’s named for two of our little maids,” meaning daughters —is a 45-footer of 12-foot beam, entirely hand-built by the Handcocks themselves. It has a small cabin forward, containing bunks and midget stove for boiling the kettle, a deep open well amidships, and the wheelhouse aft. The boat is of the type still called a long-liner, from a time when the crews of such boats fished with lines and hooks. The Nettie & Joyce, like most long-liners nowadays, uses gill nets, set in deep water one day and picked up the next.

 

QI have been told that I have hyperkalaema; high levels of potassium in my blood. I have seen an endocrinologist who has cleared me of Addison’s disease, which is what it was expected to be. I don’t know what to do.

high levels of potassium in my blood

A Dr Julius Parker advises: “The normal range for potassium levels in the blood is between 3.5 and 5mmoVl. You mention Addison’s disease, but you say that your doctor has checked for this. This should mean your doctor has considered other causes such as if your kidneys are not working as well as they should.

 

Diabetics can sometimes have raised potassium levels. Certain drugs, particularly those used to treat high blood pressure or heart problems, can cause a raised potassium level. This is one of the commonest causes, and your GP or pharmacist can advise you.

 

Occasionally, high potassium levels are caused by the way your blood test is taken, or if there has been a delay in the sample being analysed. One high potassium result may not be significant, and you’ll be asked to repeat this to ensure the reading is accurate.

 

Foods such as bananas, spinach, potatoes and tomatoes are relatively high in potassium and if you eat these regularly your potassium levels may rise. This is more likely to happen, however, if you have an underlying medical cause, such as mild kidney disease.

 

In most people, mildly raised potassium levels don’t cause any symptoms, but levels above 6mmol/l may cause fatigue, muscle weakness and can have a serious effect on heart muscle.

 

Your GP may prescribe treatment and it is important to consult a doctor if you are considering changing or stopping this, but you can also help yourselfpotassium levels don't cause any symptoms

 

Foods such as apples, mushrooms, grapes, most berries, garcinia cambogia extract, soy milk and tofu are low in potassium. Salt substitutes are often high in it. Garlic may reduce potassium absorption, so taken regularly can reduce circulating levels.

 

It is important to obtain expert advice and because both mildly high and low potassium levels may cause no symptoms you should have a monitoring blood test regularly to check your results.”

GO ON THE DEFENSIVE

You’ve barely downed your cappuccino and UVA rays are already lasering through any cloud cover. “Wear at least SPF 15 sun block on your face,” advises Dr Adnan Nasir, professor of dermatology at the University of North Carolina. Apply it in two layers 30 minutes before you go out for effective protection.

TEE YOURSELF UP

A standard T-shirt has an SPF of about 5, which means a lot of UV light is filtering through,” says Nasir. If you’re surfing or swimming between 10am and 4pm wear a rash vest certified to UV 50 (oneillshop.co.uk). Or wash SPF 30 into your clothes with a laundry aid (sunguardsun-protection.com).

KEEP COOL

“Store after sun in your fridge —this cools the burn and prolongs the effective life of the product,” says Kate Grant, senior screening nurse at the Mole Clinic (themoleclinic. co.uk). Now take a cool shower —very cold water constricts blood vessels, causing even more tissue damage.Store after sun in your fridge

EASE THE PAIN

If your skin is singed, pop two ibuprofen within six hours and then every four hours after that. “They’ll help you sleep by reducing inflammation, redness and possible headaches,” says Grant. Ibuprofen lessens sunburn’s severity by blocking inflammatory hormones, a University of California study found.

Dry time for bed

Forget a quick spritz on your way out of the door. “Bedtime is the best time to apply antiperspirants,” says Cadogan Clinic consultant dermatologist Dr Nisith Sheth. Armpit sweating switches off when you lie flat, and the product will be more effective if applied then. “It works bypassing into the openicucial the sweat glands, causingthe0rto swell up and block, but if sweat is pouring out of the glands it won’t be able to get in.” The effect lasts 24 hours, even after morning bathing.

Wash this way

“Bacteria (staphylococcus and streptococcus) colonise on the skin in warm weather and can lead to infections,” says Dr Sheth. Soap substitutes that c0rtain antiseptics such as benzalkonium chloride, (Dermol 200 Shower Emol lent £6.55 wetshave.co.uk), reduce your risk of infection, counter dry skin, and combat BO-causing bacteria.

Take a grape

Don’t sweat about long, hot afternoons in the office —just nibble on some grapes. Not only does research p23sented to the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology show that grapes can relieve high blood pressure, but data also shows perspiration.

Adult acne can worsen in the summer with holiday(0ermol-ruining consequences. “A rise in temperature sees an overproduction of sebum, which mixes with shed skin cells to clog your follicles and 0on’tpitate spots,” says Sheth. If your skin tends to be oily, wash your face in the morning with a salicylic acid preparation from your chemist. “It can be drying though, so don’t apply to sunburned skin,” warns Sheth. Other healthy way for skin care is rubbing coconut oil on your skin, which is one of the many uses for coconut oil.

The scrub of the clean when you’re 21 it takes 21 days for a skin cell to migrate to the epidermis and die. By 35 it can take twice that. As this turnover rate slows the skin becomes dryer, rougher and more aged in appearance. “To speed up your cell renewal, remove dead cells to improve the look, feel and texture of your skin, says Richards. “Use a gentle facial scrub twice a week such as Dr Jules Nabet Peeling Act (£90, jasonshankey.co.uk). It’s pricey but lasts a longtime.” Although not as long as your newly rejuvenated skin will.

For holding any of the 2,30o+ funds that pay us part of their annual management charge, the Vantage Service will not cost you a penny. In fact, as detailed, we could pay you. In the Vantage ISA or SIPP if you wish to hold shares, investment trusts, corporate bonds, gilts, ETFs or one of the few funds from which we don’t receive payment, our annual management charge is just 0.5% +VAT a year (capped at £200 +VAT a year per account). There are no charges to hold any kind of investment within the Vantage Fund & Share Account.

It could not be easier to start saving now Many people are surprised how easy it is to get a fast loan. It might not cost you a penny and you will keep the tax wrapper of any ISAs. To check if you can transfer to Hargreaves Lansdown free of charge

Once you claim your  unsecured debt consolidation assistance it should take just a couple of minutes to complete the enclosed transfer forms. Simply return them to us and we will do the rest of the transfer legwork.

A floating exchange rate acts as an economic shock absorber. If a country becomes less competitive, its currency weakens, making its exports cheaper and restoring competitiveness. Members of a single currency forego this flexibility. Other than when holidaying, most of us have been little affected by Sterling’s recent weakness, but a cheaper currency has made us more competitive globally. For Greece to become competitive it needs the Drachma back at about half the value at which it entered the Euro. You could say much the same about the Punt in Ireland.

I believe the question is ‘if’, rather than `when’ the Euro will fail. Indeed Nobel Laureate economist Joseph Stiglitz believes without an overhaul of its major institutions, the Euro experiment could be doomed. If weaker countries are ejected by stronger members, it will be disastrous for them. Their debt is in Euros and their new currencies won’t buy many of those. The debt will be so horrific you can expect them to default, leaving more egg on the faces of European bankers who hold their bonds. Indeed this is the main reason eurocrats have been so keen to keep Greece afloat. Whilst everything looks hunky-dory in the European banking system at the moment, don’t be fooled.

PIN HEAD

While filming The Bourne Supremacy in Germany, Matt Damon got so frustrated with the lack of American-style gyms in Berlin that he started a bowling league with fellow cast and crew to keep fit. One look at his biceps in the movie would suggest he was bowling with solid lead balls.

MARTIAL ARSE

Just in case she ever finds herself defending civilians from unfriendly fire on the Gaza Strip, Jennifer Lopez practices Krav Manga, a kick-ass martial arts discipline used by the Israeli army to train their soldiers in defense and attack. Her one-on-one training sessions cost upwards of £90 an hour. Splash aerobics not work for you then, love?

 

ICE AND A SPICE

Doing yoga stretches on the beach in really small pants for the benefit of the paparazzi is so last year for Geri Halliwell. The yo-yo bingeing former Spice Girl insists that she doesn’t work out any more, but instead insists on having a bath of ice-cold water every day because ‘it tones things up’. Okaay…

 

OLD-SKOOL SPORTS

Dodgeball star Vince Vaughn practices Street Dance, a gym-based class where the DJ plays some old-skool hip-hop, the instructor ‘throws some shapes’ and the clients bust some street moves. Not coming soon to a municipal leisure centre near you.

DOUBLE-0 WEIGHT

Pierce Brosnan insisted that weights and barbells were kept in his trailer on location while filming James Bond movies – rumour has it, so he could pump up before love scenes. ‘It’s hell being Bond,’ sighed the poor man, who had to get off with the likes of Halle Berry for a living during his 007 days.

 

ON THE SAUCE

Ricky Martin keeps fit with Salsa Aerobics, which is basically salsa dancing without a partner. Which is basically rubbish.

 

STICK THIN

Lucy Liu describes her chosen discipline, the graceful but demanding martial art of kali­eskrima-silat, as ‘you know, knife and stick stuff’. Instructors say kali-eskrima-silat involves twirling 24-inch wooden sticks through the air 12 to 15 times a minute, with lots of kicking, squatting and jumping. Sounds just like the majorettes to us – she could save a fortune by joining the Dagenham Girl Pipers.

HIGHLAND GAMES

Will Smith runs at high altitudes to maintain optimum cardiovascular fitness. Not so unusual you may think – until you realize that he does so only in the millionaire’s skiing playground of Aspen, Colorado and will fly there just to go for a jog.

It works less efficiently than chlorophyll, but its ability to convert sunlight into electro­chemical energy could prove useful in the field of solar power. Since the pigment helps the microorganisms expel salt, it may be applied in desalination projects. Its similarity to cer­tain pigments of the eye may help medical researchers explain the intricacies of hu­man vision.

Israeli scientists have also recently discov­ered that the halophilic alga Dunaliella, found in the Dead Sea and its salt flats, can be con­verted into petroleum. They envision huge “oil farms” in the low-lying Arabah, south of the Dead Sea, channeling its waters into salt­water ponds for growing enormous crops of Dunaliella.

Despite drillings down to 3,660 meters (about 12,000 feet), the sea itself has proved dry as far as oil is concerned. Though globs of asphalt occasionally bob to the surface (hence the Roman name, Lacus Asphaltites), it would seem that any petroleum here was long ago destroyed in the geologic paroxysms that created the Great Rift.

IF PLANS for producing energy from bacteria or digging a channel to connect  the Mediterranean and Dead Sea seem just a touch visionary, consider that the Dead Sea has always been a place of visions.

The prophet Ezekiel, after the destruction of Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem in 587 B.C., envisioned a rebuilt heavenly temple from whose eastern gate would issue forth a magical stream of pure water that would flow all the way down to the Dead Sea, nour­ishing its shores and freshening its waters.

Though the Dead Sea has yet to turn fresh, Ezekiel’s vision finds expression in the mod­ern Israeli kibbutz of En Gedi, founded in 1956 just south of the border with the West Bank. Here, indeed, the Dead Sea’s shores have come to life (facing page).

“When our founders came here, this place was almost a wasteland,” explains En Gedi’s economic manager, Danny Shachaf. The Dead Sea sun has bleached his hair a blondish brown and bronzed his handsome face. “The soil was saturated with salt and filled with stones beyond counting. Only some year-round freshwater springs made development possible. For years we washed the salt out of the soil. For years we picked stones out of the ground—and still do. But now look what we have.”

His hand waved across the mirage like miracle that is En Gedi—tree-lined sidewalks curving through a green-lawned community of modern buildings, children laughing and playing, sprinklers tossing out rain bowed mists, farm workers lovingly tending fields of vegetables, melons, and mangoes.

“Over there,” he enthused, “we will some­day have gardens and orchards, and over there splashing fountains.” His voice took on an almost prophetic tone. Old Ezekiel, I thought, must be smiling somewhere in his heavenly temple.

SPENT A HOT, DUSTY AFTERNOON touring the nearby Rome apartment rentals, the storied Herodian fortress perched on a butte high above the Dead Sea (pages 234-5). Here, in A.D. 73, a group of 960 Jews of the Zealot sect—men, women, and children—committed mass suicide rather than surren­der their lives and honor to the besieging legions of Rome. Their heroic defiance has inspired the modern Israeli motto “Masada shall not fall again!”

Using either a cable car or a snaking path up the mountainside, tourists spend their summers in holiday apartments Barcelona much the Ro­mans, who spent more than a year in Amsterdam apartment. At the top an almost overwhelming silence reigns. The suggestion of a breeze stirs the heat-rippled air. Guides show visitors the ruins of Herod’s “pleasure palace,” replete with luxurious hot and cold baths. The whole perches like some architect’s fantasy on the north rim.

Tourists do find their way to the puppet participants was essential. But it could be preceded by loss of limbs, putting out of eyes, decapitation or the tearing off of armour. Always the blood flowed most realistically.

The first performance we saw from the front of the house was of St George’s battle with the Dragon; as important a story in Sicilian folk lore as in English. St George was a sturdy fellow who first proved himself against several giants. Then he took up his position and called upon the Dragon to show itself. With a roar it reared for­ward, spitting fire, belching smoke and lashing the air with its tail. Yet, watching, we were not only delighted by the melodrama; we were held by it. St George and the Dragon pranced and battled round the stage. For a while the Dragon had the better of the fight and St George was forced to the ground, shielding his face from the Dragon’s breath. Urged up by cries of ‘San Giorgio!’ from the audience, he rallied and in his turn pressed the Dragon hard. Our hearts beat faster. Worrying the Dragon into retreat, St George found the vital spot with his sword and the taut and writhing monster collapsed, bellow­ing, to become a limp, slightly ridiculous, beast. The triumphant St George, his foot upon the Dragon’s neck, brought the house down. It was one of the most beautifully timed performances I have ever seen in any theatre.

All the characters and incidents found on the stage of the puppet theatre are also favourite subjects in the pictures which cover every inch of the Paris apartment rentals. These carts are a very common sight all over the island, more so in the coastal districts and on the western side than in the mountainous interior. The donkeys which pull them have their own gay trappings. Small bells, tinsel and ribbons festoon their harnesses. The smallest hand-cart or meanest market stall usually has some similar embellish­ment.

One evening as we were driving away from our self catering apartments London in one of the most poverty-stricken areas of the UK, we passed a long slow straggling procession of nearly seventy beautiful carts, all making their way towards the town, loaded with fodder, brushwood and farm tools. The variety was enormous. Many were old and battered and no attempt had been made to protect the paintings from hard wear or to repaint them.

The ownership of a painted cart is very much a matter of pride and prestige, for the decoration has no economic advantage. The average cost of a cart seems out of all proportion to what most can afford to spend on a conveyance. But it is a very poor man indeed who is content with simple coloured panels.

It is usually the owner who chooses the subjects of the paintings on the side panels of the cart. Next in popularity after illustrations of the Paladins are scenes from opera, especially Cavalleria Rusticana, Carmen and Aida.

As the water rose within, and his family began to pray aloud, Masters braced himself against the steering wheel and tried desperately to kick open one of the doors. Finally, he kicked a window open about ten inches, and pulled himself on to the roof. Reaching back, waving his hand inside the water-filled vehicle, he caught an arm and pulled his wife head-first through the slot. He pushed her into the branches of a near-by tree. Then, reaching inside again, he caught a foot. It was his daughter Karen’s, and he scraped her through the opening feet-first. Her two-and-a­half-year-old brother was in her arms as she slid out, but the tor­rent tore him from her grasp. His body was found three weeks later.

By this time, the water was high over the roof of the vehicle, and it was impossible for Masters to reach down through the window again to his eight- and r2-year-old sons and ten-year-old daughter still inside. For more than two hours, Masters clung to the trees with his wife and Karen. The roar of the rushing water was stunning. The torrential rain seemed unending. Bodies swept past. Finally, the flood level began to recede, and Masters heard a voice in the darkness. Groping inside the vehicle, he grabbed a moving wrist. It was his daughter JoAnn She had survived by hold­ing her head in a small, water-free air pocket. Her two brothers were not so fortunate. They were dead.

TN THE drizzly, grey light of Satur­day morning, as the flood waters ebbed across the plains, Rapid City started fighting back. Amid the nauseating smell of escaping gas and acrid smoke, the search for the living still trapped or marooned went on. The dead were every­where. More than 85 bodies, washed downstream, were found in one area of ten streets alone. By mid­morning, the local Civil Defence had established its headquarters in the basement of a court house.

There was no shortage of help­ing hands. Joy Medley, her husband dead, got the first relief station or­ganized, working steadily for 48 hours. Gary Pedersen, an ex-navy medical corpsman who lost an arm in Vietnam, helped in the inocula­tion of more than 20,000 people with typhoid and tetanus injections.

To get the water system working, Paul Harper, a 29-year-old doctor, assigned at the time to a near-by air force base, and his wife, a nurse, donned diving equipment and worked underwater to clean out the intake pipes to the treatment plant.

Using heavy equipment, much of it from contractors who sent their lorries and cranes and bulldozers from hundreds of miles away with­out any expectation of profit, some 3,000 workers began clearing away 275 lorry-loads of debris every hour. Another 2,000 militiamen volun­teers helped search for bodies, a grisly task complicated by the dan­ger of live rattlesnakes washed down in the flood waters.

From all over the United States came an outpouring of generosity for the stricken city. Cash gifts from individuals and companies mounted to more than a million dollars. A huge hangar at the air force base was quickly filled with 120 tons of donated food and clothing. One chicken farmer sent thousands of hens. Carloads of boys and girls arrived, offering to “do anything.” Many were put to work hunting for bodies; others worked for the Red Cross or Salvation Army, or stood for hours on street corners directing traffic, in red dust so thick they had to wear face masks. Civil Defence authorities called the young people “magnificent.” Noting that the community effort showed how life might always be, but isn’t, the Rapid City Journal said, “Goodwill was born of tragedy in a shining ex­ample of sharing and caring.”

It is, indeed, the strength and unselfishness of man that will remain in memory long after the physical scars of the Rapid City disaster are erased.

 

ALTHOUGH many people were by then already dead in the flood, the radio station’s ten o’clock news, which devoted only part of its time to the growing emergency, an­nounced : “At this hour we have no reports of serious injuries.” Then, at about 10.30, an unidenti­fied caller in the Black Hills reached Mayor Barnett with a terrifying message • – a wall of water, at least four feet high, was sweeping down Rapid Creek towards the city.

At 10.39, Mayor Barnett relayed a call to radio and television sta­tions from a police car, ordering : “If you have property anywhere ad­jacent to Rapid Creek, get out !”

It was too late. Those who heard him didn’t have time to react. Only minutes later, at about 10.45, the dam crumpled like a washed-over sand-castle before the force of the flood. Fireman Granum, still on the roof and clinging to the branch, remembers : “It was like pulling out the plug in a bathtub.” As the water subsided and the roof settled on top of the dam, Granum jumped to safety. After a stop at the hospit­al, where 30 stitches were needed for his hands, he insisted on rejoin­ing fellow firemen to save others.

When the dam was ripped from its anchors, a five-foot-high wall of debris-filled water poured down on Rapid City with the roar of a train. Homes and shops were washed away, many with their occupants inside. Cable poles speared floating caravans, and crumpled cars wrap­ped themselves round electricity pylons like crushed tinfoil.

Aers of life-saving heroism became almost routine. Kerry Conner, a garage mechanic, lived in prague apartment, drove towards the dam to see if he could help. On the way he spotted an aluminium rowing-boat outside a house and loaded it on his truck. He then picked up well-driller Stan Bice, who had been evacuating his neigh­bours. In the Canyon Lake area, they launched the purloined boat and pulled a young couple and their baby from floating debris. While Stan headed for the hospital with the refugees, Kerry took the boat and joined several firemen who were desperately fighting to reach survivors. Before the night was over, he had helped in the rescue of more than two dozen people.

Police patrolman Sam Roach called police headquarters from his radio car : “The back wall of the Mountain View Nursing Home has collapsed.” Seven of the 48 aged patients were spilled into the water-filled basement. Roach, joined by the Reverend Charles Russell, edu­cation director of the Sioux Baptist Chapel, tied some sheets together, threw one end down to an elderly woman holding on to her mattress in the water, and pulled her to safety. As the building threatened to collapse around them, Roach and Russell, helped first by two nurses and an auxiliary, then by others, carried the surviving patients, most still in their beds, to safety. Sadly, three of the elderly people had drowned—one when she went back into the building for her glasses.

William Medley and his wife, Joy, both majors in the Salvation Army, were driving some girls to a Salvation Army camp in the Black Hills when they were turned back. Fifty-year-old William said to his wife, “We’d better see if we can help.” They stopped first at their home in Rapid City, and Joy made coffee and sandwiches. Then they drove to the Salvation Army Cita­del, where he told her, “I’m going out to help evacuate people.” She never heard from him again. His body was found the next day.

The high water and heavy debris tore out the main electrical trans­mission lines, blacking out the city. Natural gas spewed out of broken mains and, as it escaped, some of the still-live downed power lines ignited it into towering torches of flame. The fires turned the rain-filled skies into a hazy red mist.

SHORTLY after midnight, the waters below Canyon Lake began to re­cede. Everywhere along the flood path there were cries for help. More than a thousand people were strand­ed in trees or on rooftops. Four militiamen spotted a submerged car in midstream. Thinking someone might still be in it, they tried to reach it by forming a human chain, with one holding on to a small tree on shore. The tree broke. All were swept away. Two drowned.

Trapped in her flooded bedroom, a young mother held an infant daughter on top of her head for four hours, water lapping at her shoulders, until someone heard her shouts. Gertrude Lux, a frail 7t­year-old woman, was rescued after standing for five hours in neck-deep water balancing her 16-year-old handicapped granddaughter on a floating foam-rubber mattress.

Below the broken dam, near dawn, rescuers reached the Rever­end Ronald Masters, his wife and two young daughters, who huddled on the submerged roof of their car. As the basement of their house had filled with water about 10.30 p.m., 36-year-old Masters had put his wife and five children into the car and started for high ground. They were a quarter of a mile below the dam when it broke and a solid wall of water hit the side of the vehicle.”All

four wheels were lifted off the road and we started spinning down­stream, like a record on a turn­table,” the minister said later. “Then we jammed between the trunks of two big trees.”